Showing posts from July, 2021

Material Hardness : Effect of Carbon Content & Heat Treatment on Material Hardness

Understand the material hardness and the effect of carbon content and heat treatment on hardness This lab work aims to understand the material hardness of different materials and effect of carbon content present in the material on material hardness and the effect of heat treatment of material on material hardness. To achieve the aim of this lab work the following mentioned objectives have to be completed in said sequence 1. Develop a comprehensive understanding of methods used for measuring material hardness 2. Develop a comprehensive understanding of the effect of carbon percentage on material hardness 3. Develop a comprehensive understanding of the effect of heat treatment on material hardness 4. Perform a hardness test to measure material hardness 5. Perform hardness test after increasing carbon content 6. Perform hardness test after heat treatment of material 7. Develop a comprehensive conclusion about the work Material Hardness Material hardness can be defined as the material'

Working of an Air Condition unit

Air conditioning unit, or air-con, AC, A/C, is the process where heat and/or moisture is removed from a building or interior space to improve the comfort of the occupants.  It applies to both residential and commercial spaces. It is used to improve the comfort of both humans and animals.  Sometimes, these systems are also used to dehumidify and cool spaces occupied by heat-producing devices such as computer servers as well in storage rooms with delicates stored items such as artworks.  Air-conditioning systems are equipped with a fan(s) that are used in the distribution of conditioned air to areas of interest to improve the comfort of the occupants.  The cooling and/or heating is achieved through the refrigeration cycle.  However, sometimes free cooling or evaporation is also used. In some ACs, desiccants are used to remove and/or add moisture from the air. The current experiment involves an analysis of an air-conditioning system by use of a psychrometric chart as well as a practical m

Issues Related to air conditioning units

Environmental issues Air-conditioning plants consume a lot of energy. This means air or/and water and/or sound pollution at the source of the electricity. A rage number of these plants uses chemicals such as CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs as the colling agents. When such agents are released to the environment either accidentally or at the end of life, they have negative effects on the ozone layer and thus leads to global warming over time. The recent times, many air-conditioners are being manufactured from plastics. If disposed to the environment, plastics can be detrimental as they are non-biodegradable. However, a large percentage of plastics can be recycled. Energy Issues Air-conditioning plants consume a lot of energy for them to function as expected. This deprives other energy needs as well as being very expensive to operate especially during extreme weather conditions (cold or hot) (Davis and Gertler, 2015). Health Issues A large percentage of the air-conditioning plants use ducts in thei

Lab Report: To Study the Buckling of Struts

Over View of Buckling of Struts Buckling of strut is an important phenomenon in engineering. In this experiment buckling of struts for different materials has been studied. Materials used in this study were aluminum, steel and brass.  Ten samples of circular struts of similar diameter but of different length were taken for each material type.  Tensile testing machine was used to perform the experiment. Two different methods were used to find the buckling load and stress theoretically.  Euler formula which is usually used for long struts was used to calculate the amount of buckling load and stress in the samples. Rankine’s formula was also used to calculate the load and stress in all the samples of different materials.  The data for experimental, Euler’s formula and Rankine’s formula was then gathered, manipulated and put in tabular form to make it eye-catching and easily understandable.  Graph for all materials show that value of stress is very close to experimental values at high slen

Diesel Engine Vs Petrol Engine

For Diesel Engine vs Petrol Engine discussion we have written diesel engines advantages over petrol engines. So Following are is a brief comparison of petrol engine and diesel engine Diesel Engine Vs Petrol Engine  A diesel engine burns fuel at a high compression ratio instead of using spark plugs and they are also un-throttled which is why diesel engines are more efficient compared to petrol engines. Comparing Diesel Engine Vs Petrol Engine over thermal efficiency. The thermal efficiency of diesel engines is higher than that of petrol engines which means that they can convert more of the heat supplied into useful mechanical work and waste less of it in the environment. Diesel engines are low-carbon and other greenhouse gas emitters. Greenhouse gases are responsible for elevating the earth’s temperature.  Diesel engines work at lower RPMs contrasted with a petrol engine which causes less frictional losses. The pieces of the diesel engine are thicker because of the high pressing factor

Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity

Conduction can be defined as the transfer of electrons from one place to another under a potential difference or heat gradient. It is one of three modes of heat transfer between two or more bodies at different temperatures.  The other two modes of heat transfer are convection and radiation. Generally, in solids conduction is due to the vibrations of molecules and motion of free electrons. Metals have high number of free electrons which explains that why they are good conductors.  Thermal conductivity is the extent by which a substance can conduct heat or electricity. Solid, specifically speaking metals, have high thermal conductivity whereas gases have low value of thermal conductivity. The formula for Fourier Law of heat conduction can be given as Q=kA dT/dx Where, Q = Heat flow rate, [Watt] k = Thermal conductivity of the material, watt/km  A = Cross-sectional area of the conduction, [m2] dT = Temperature Difference, [K] dx = Thickness or length of the material specimen, [m] Factors