### VENTURI METER AND ORIFICE PLATE LAB REPORT

Venturi meter and orifice plate effects are two main and very important phenomenas in fuild mechanics sub field of mechanical engineering. In this post the effect of venturi meter and orifice plate on the fluid flow will be disciussed and complete work will be presented in the form of report.

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Aim and Objectives

Aim
The aim of this experiment is to study the overall meter coefficient C of Venture meter and Orifice plate

Objective
The objectives of this experiment are

1. Understand the effect of decrease in area on the velocity and pressure of the flowing fluid

2. Understand the relationship between velocity and pressure of flowing fluid

3. Find the meter coefficient for venture meter and orifice plate

Venture Meter
According to Michael Reader-Harris (n.d) Venture meter is an instrument use to study the flow of fluid when it passes through the converging section. There is an increase in the velocity and decrease in the pressure of the flowing fluid when the area available to flowing fluid decrease, this effect is called the venture effect named after the physicist who first introduces this theory.

Orifice Plate
According to Michael Reader-Harris (n.d) Orifice plate is an instrument use for three different applications one to measure the flow rate, second to restricting the flow and third is to reduce the pressure of the flowing fluid. It depends on the orifice plate associated calculation method that either mass flow rate or the volumetric flow rate is used for calculation. It uses the Bernoulli’s principle which shows the relationship between velocity and pressure of flowing fluid. When one increase then the second one decrease.

According to DANIEL MEASUREMENT and control white papers, following are the different types of orifice plates
The Thin Plate, Concentric Orifice
Eccentric Orifice Plates
Segmental Orifice Plates
Conic Edge Plate

Theory
According to Miller, R.W (1996) principle of continuity state that the decrease in the area of the flowing fluid will increase the velocity of the flowing fluid. With this increase in velocity of fluid, the fluid pressure will decrease to conserve the mechanical energy according to the law of conservation of energy.

Flow rate is the product of the velocity of the flowing fluid with area from which fluid is flowing. In venture meter the area of the tube decrease gradually due to which the velocity increase to keep the flow rate constant. In the orifice plate there is sudden decrease in the area of the flow due to restriction of the orifice plate. Due to this velocity will increase and pressure will decrease.

According to Bernoulli’s equation

P1+  1/2×ρ×v1^2+ ρgh1=P2+  1/2×ρ×v2^2+ ρgh2

As change in height is zero so

P1+  1/2×ρ×v1^2= P2+  1/2×ρ×v2^2

P2 - P1=  1/2×ρ×〖(v〗1^2- v2^2)

As we know

Q=AV

Q=A √((2(P2-P1)/ρ)/(〖[A1/A2]〗^2-1))

As we know

P= ρgh

So

Q= A1 √((2×g × ∆h)/(〖[A1/A2]〗^2-1))

In above equation

Q is flow rate

A1 is the area before convergence

A2 area of convergence (throat)

∆h is difference in height of heads across the convergence

For real fluid there will be difference in the theoretical and measured values this may be due to the meter coefficient C

Q= C ×A1 √((2×g × ∆h)/(〖[A1/A2]〗^2-1))

Apparatus
Orifice Tube and Venture Meter
Supply Hoses
Measuring Tank
Procedure
To setup the orifice tube and venture meter apparatus two tubes were connected one on each of the outlet and inlet of the apparatus. Tube which was connected to the venture meter outlet was further connected to the measuring tank. To level the orifice meter and venture tube apparatus, adjustable screws are provided at the apparatus.

Apparatus was connected to the power source to run the motor for water supply. Bench valve and the control valve of the apparatus were open to let the water move into the tube and to remove all the air pockets.

To raise the water level in the manometer tubes the control valve was closed gradually and when the height of water level was enough high then the bench valve was gradually closed. With both valves were closed there was a static water in the meter at a moderate pressure

Flow rate of the water was recorded and height of the water level was also recorded in all the tubes

Difference between the heights of water level and the flow rate will change upon opening any one of the apparatus valves. Flow rate was calculated by the noticing the time required to fill the tank of a known weight and at the same time the level of the water in the manometer tubes was also recorded

Same process are repeated for different flow rates

# Sample Calculations

Mass = 6 Kg

Volume = 6/1000 = 0.006 cubic meter

Time = 12.81 sec

Flow Rate = 0.006/12.81 = 0.0004684 cubic meter/sec
For Venture

C=  Q/A_1 ×1/√((2×g × ∆h)/(〖[A_1/A2]〗^2-1))

C = (0.0004684/0.053066)×  1/√((2×g × 0.267)/([26/16]^4-1))

C = 0.00943

# Experimental Results

Table 1 Experimental Results
 Results Venture Orifice d1 = 26 d2 = 16 d1 = 51 d2 = 20 Test Mass Kg Time sec Q m^3/sec h1 mm h2 mm h1 mm h2 mm 1 6 12.81 0.0004684 379 112 367 62 6 12.69 0.0004728 379 112 367 62 2 6 13.38 0.0004484 359 112 351 79 6 13.38 0.0004484 359 112 351 79 3 6 14.72 0.0004076 339 137 332 99 6 14.75 0.0004068 339 137 332 99 4 6 16.31 0.0003679 318 156 312 127 6 16.38 0.0003663 318 156 312 127 5 6 18.37 0.0003266 299 174 294 152 6 18.63 0.0003221 299 174 294 152 6 6 22.65 0.0002649 278 194 273 182 6 22.97 0.0002612 278 194 273 182

Table 2 Calculations
 Calculations Venture Orifice ∆h m C ∆h m C h1-h2 h1-h2 0.267 0.00943 0.305 0.006028 0.267 0.009519 0.305 0.006085 0.247 0.009386 0.272 0.006112 0.247 0.009386 0.272 0.006112 0.202 0.009434 0.233 0.006002 0.202 0.009415 0.233 0.00599 0.162 0.009508 0.185 0.006079 0.162 0.009467 0.185 0.006053 0.125 0.00961 0.142 0.006161 0.125 0.009476 0.142 0.006075 0.084 0.009508 0.091 0.006242 0.084 0.009376 0.091 0.006155

# Discussion

·  1. Curve shown in the graphs shows the linear relation between flow rate and difference in height

·  2. Result shows that with decrease in the flow rate the value of the ∆h is also decreasing. So it can be said from the results that the difference in the height of water level is directly proportional the flow rate.

· 3. Change in the height of the water column of the venture meter is much less than the change in the height of water column in the orifice plate this is because the difference in diameter of the areas of orifice is much more than the venture meter. So we can say that the difference in height of water column is directly proportional to the difference in the diameter of the area.

# Conclusion

An experiment was conducted to find the overall meter coefficient C in venture meter and orifice tube and result show that the flow rate and ∆h are directly proportional to each other and along with this ∆h and the ∆d are also directly proportional to each other. Both these thing are important as they are used to calculate the overall meter coefficient C

# References

·  1. Michael Reader-Harris (n.d) Chapter 2 Orifice plate, Orifice Plates and Venture Tubes, Spring
· 2. Miller, R.W (1996) Flow Measurement engineering Handbook 3Rd ED. McGraw-Hill Book, New York N.Y
3. USBR (1996) Flow Measurement Manual. Water Resource Publication LLC Highland Ranch Co
4.Michael Reader-Harris (n.d) Chapter 3 Venture tube, Orifice Plates and Venture Tubes, Spring

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