Introduction To Manufacturing

Manufacture is derived from two Latin words manus (hand) and factus (make); the combination means “made by hand”. “Made by hand”accurately described the manual methods used when the English word “manufacture” was first coined around 1567 A.D. Most modern manufacturing is accomplished by automated and computer-controlled machinery that is manually supervised


Manufacturing is the application of physical and chemical processes to alter the geometry, properties, and/or appearance of a given starting material to make parts or products; manufacturing also includes assembly of multiple parts to make products Manufacturing is almost always carried out as a sequence of operations

Manufacturing is the transformation of materials into items of greater value by means of one or more processing and/or assembly operations Manufacturing adds value to the material by changing its shape or properties, or by combining it with other materials that have been similarly altered

Manufacturing Importance

Technology can be defined as the application of science to provide society and its members with those things that are needed or desired
  • Technology provides products that help our society and its members live better
  • What do these products have in common? They are all manufactured
  • Manufacturing is the essential factor that makes technology possible

Manufacturing is a means by which a nation creates material wealth
  • In the U.S. manufacturing constitutes ~ 20% of GNP
  • Government is as much of GNP as manufacturing,but it creates no wealth

Historically, the importance of manufacturing in the development of civilization is usually underestimated
  • Throughout history, human cultures that were better at making things were more successful
  • Making better tools meant better crafts & weapons 
  • Better crafts allowed the people to live better
  • Better weapons allowed them to conquer other cultures in times of conflict
  • To a significant degree, the history of civilization is the history of humans' ability to make thing

Manufacturing materials

Materials use in manufacturing are Classified as follow

1. Metals
2. Ceramics
3. Polymers
4. Composites

Their chemistries are different, their mechanical and physical properties are dissimilar, and these differences affect the manufacturing processes that can be used to produce products from them

Manufacturing Processes

Manufacturing processes are classified into Two basic types
  • Processing operations
  • Assembly operations

1. Processing operations - transform a work material from one state of completion to a more advanced stateOperations that change the geometry, properties, or appearance of the starting material

2. Assembly operations - join two or more components in order to create a new entity

Manufacturing Industries

Manufacturing Industries can be classified as:

1. Primary industries - those that cultivate and exploit natural resources, e.g., agriculture, mining

2. Secondary industries - take the outputs of primary industries and convert them into consumer and capital goods - manufacturing is the principal activity

3. Tertiary industries – service sector of the economy