Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Horizontal axis wind turbine is one in which the axis of rotation of blade is parallel to the ground. These wind turbines have been considered as a stander for wind turbine that is their efficiency, working, manufacturing cost, advantages and disadvantages all are taken as a stander for any other types of wind turbine.

Due their design they need to be installed at some height from the ground so that their blades might not hit the ground during rotation and that’s why all their components are placed in a box called nacelle which is placed on top of a huge tower.

Number of blades on a Horizontal axis wind turbine is not fixed one can use any number of blades on a wind turbine but due to high efficiency three blade wind turbine is most common and it is also considered as a slandered design but there are also one, two and four blades wind turbine available in the market

Parts of Horizontal axis wind turbine

Following are the basic parts of a Horizontal axis wind turbine

  • Blades 
  • Rotor
  • Pitch
  • Brakes
  • Low speed shaft
  • Gear box
  • Generator
  • Wind vain
  • Nacelle
  • High speed shaft
  • Yaw drive
  • Yaw motor
  • Tower
Horizontal axis wind turbine parts
Horizontal axis wind turbine parts

Working of horizontal axis wind turbine

Working mechanism of the horizontal axis wind turbine is really simple. 

Wind moving at high speed have kinetic energy in it and when wind strike with the blades of wind turbine its kinetic energy is converted in to the rotational energy of the blades. 

As blades are attach to shaft and shaft is attach to generator so the rotating blades finally result into the production of electricity by the generator

Advantages of horizontal axis wind turbine

Following are the top five advantages of a Horizontal axis wind turbine
  • Relatively high efficiency than vertical axis wind turbine
  • Pitch mechanism can save it from storms
  • Self-starting ability
  • Angle of attack of blades can be change to get maximum energy from slow wind speed
  • All blades work at a time so maximum energy is taken from the wind

Disadvantages of horizontal axis wind turbine

Following are 9 disadvantages of Horizontal axis wind turbine

  • High initial cost
  • High maintenance cost
  • Noise problem
  • Very bad visual impact
  • Need huge ground to install
  • Dangerous for bird’s population
  • Cannot be installed near human population
  • Because of long structure of blades and tower they are difficult to transport
  • Create navigation problem when they are installed off shore


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