Jun 19, 2014

Components of Centrifugal Pump

We will discuss the components of centrifugal pump by starting from suction and will end at delivery of fluid at reservoir 


Suction pipe

Pipe which lifts the liquid from the sump and provides it to the pump at the impeller eye is called suction pipe. Suction is made air tight in order to stop the formation of air pocket with in the pump


A strainer is attached at that end of the suction pipe which is dipped into the sump. Its main function is to stop the solid particle from entry into the pipe

Foot valve

Just above the strainer there is afoot valve whose function is to prevent the back flow of water when pump is stopped. It is also priming of pump


It is just like a wheel with a few number of vanes attached to it. It is mounted on to a shaft which is rotated by an electric motor. There are three main types of impellers used by the centrifugal pump.

Shrouded or closed impeller

Impeller type is which there are vanes with metal cover or vanes with shrouds ends. They have an advantages that they have better guidance and high efficiency but there is one limitation that should be clean and pure

Semi open impeller

In this type of impeller vanes have no crown plates and only have a base plate they have an advantages a over closed impeller that they can pump liquid with little impurities. 

Open impeller

In this type of impeller vanes are open from both sides or you can say that they are lacking base plate and crown plate. Their advantages is that they can pump sewerage water, paper pulp and other impure liquid with suspended particles


Impeller of the pump is surrounded by the air tight metal chamber called pump casing. Arrangement is made on casing for the attachment of the suction and delivery pipe. It function is to guide the incoming water toward the impeller and take high kinetic energy water from impeller. Its other function is to convert the kinetic energy of the water into the pressure energy

There are three basic types of casing in centrifugal pump

  • Volute casing
  • Vortex casing
  • Casing with guide blades

Delivery of liquid

Delivery pipe 

Pipe which takes the high pressure liquid from the pump and deliver it to the reservoir is called delivery pipe

Delivery valve

Delivery valve is provided at the delivery pipe near the attachment point of pipe and pump. It is use for priming and stopping the back flow of liquid